Angina is a cardiovascular disorder and it is usually characterized by chest pain or pressure due to insufficient supply of blood to the heart muscles.
Angina pectoris is of 3 types:
Stable angina: Most common type and it is triggered by a predictable degree of physical exertion/motion but improved after rest.
Unstable angina: This type occurs only at night and it is triggered by unpredictable degree
Prinzmetalangina: occurs at rest
In this case pain occurs due to lack of oxygen supply and inadequate flow of blood to the myocardium or muscles of the heart. Angina feels like squeezing, pressure, heaviness, tightness or pain in the chest and it can be sudden or recur over time. you may also feel dizziness,fatigue,inability to exercise.
Causes for the angina:
- Due to ischemia
- Due to blockage of arteries
Diagnosis of angina by ECG, monitoring, blood test levels of cholesterol, fats, and diabetes,
Pathophysiology of chest pain:
First it causes narrowing of coronary arteries and it leads to insufficient blood flow and it causes decreases in the oxygen supply to myocardium and it leads to anaerobic metabolism with lactic acid accumulation by this myocardial nerve fibres are irritated and pain message transmitted to cardiac nerves and upper posterior nerve roots.
Treatment for angina pectoris:
First is nitro-glycerine and it has to be taken sublingually because of its rapid absorption and pain decreases.
Beta blockers like propranolol, calcium channel blockers like nifedipine, blood thinners, ACE inhibitors are used
Medical procedures like coronary stent, cardiac catheterization, revascularization, coronary angioplasty and angioplasty
Surgeries like coronary artery bypass surgery and hybrid coronary vascularization.
- Education of patients
- Life style modification
- Smoking cessation
- Avoid alcohol intake
- Diet and nutrition and salt restriction